African art objects available. 
Antique, classical, ethnic, ethnographic, ethno-tribal, native, ritual, traditional, tribal, so-called "primitive" art from Sub-Saharan black Africa.
The market place.

Come to Antwerpen in Belgium, look, inspect, touch, feel, smell... and decide.

Paul.Nieuwenhuysen@vub.ac.be

These objects are available mainly due to lack of exhibition space.
Exchange of objects is possible.
This list is dynamic; when objects find another owner, they are deleted from this list.
If you find a lower price for a similar, equivalent object elsewhere, then do not hesitate to tell me.
 

to start with:
African objects probably, but origin is not clear

Statue - male, human figure

 

Wood
On a wooden stand
Bought on an auction of tribal arts in Antwerpen, Belgium
Available: 220 Euro









 

Angola & Congo = DRC & Zambia

Lwena=Luena or Chokwe=Bachokwe people

Axe named chimbuya


available for 150 Euro

similar objects:

http://www.ezakwantu.com/









 


Cameroon = Camerun

Comb


Wood and bone.
On a professionally made, black, metal stand.

Bought from a private collection of combs from Africa in France, in 2013.

Available: 30 + 30 = 60 Euro









 


Congo = DRC = formerly Zaire

Dzing / Yanzi / Bajansi / Mbuun / M'buun / Ngul / Ngoul / Bangoli / Lwer peoples

Symmetrical, disk-shaped / discoid knife


Iron, wood.
On a black metal stand, custom-made.

Bought from a collection of African weapons and currencies in Germany, in 2016.

Available: 320+30 Euro.

In a GAÏA auction catalogue, we can read:
Couteau symétrique discoïde. Ce couteau associé au type des poignards à large lame. La lame de fer couvre une large surface ellipsoïde proche du disque et présente une forte nervure axiale médiane pour tout décor. La pointe tronquée s’évase latéralement en deux fines pointes latérales.
La large forme discoïde non tranchante, et la pointe tronquée font de ce couteau non pas une arme mais un objet servant pour la parade et la danse ou d’emblème de prestige et de monnaie d’échange.

This type of knife was named "Mossal".

See p. 214-215 of the book
Elsen, Jan
De FER et de FIERTE - ARMES BLANCHES D'AFRIQUE NOIRE DU MUSEE BARBIER-MUELLER
Catalogue d'exposition du musée de Sarran en 2003
Editions: 5 continents
2003
274 pages
Format: 31 x 25 x 3 cm
ISBN-10: 8874390858
ISBN-13: 978-8874390854
Couverture cartonnée avec jaquette illustrée
avec de nombreuses reproductions en couleurs.
Texte en français.
Ouvrage de référence.
La collection d'armes blanches africaines du musée Barbier-Mueller de Genève fait l'objet pour la première fois d'un ouvrage d'art superbement illustré et documenté et d'une exposition au musée du président Jacques Chirac à Sarran. L'ensemble d'armes de cette collection familiale prestigieuse a été réuni par deux générations de collectionneurs, dont il révèle l'inlassable recherche du Beau. Chaque arme fut choisie et acquise avec soin, comme une oeuvre d'art, pour des raisons esthétiques, l'équilibre des formes, la force des décors, l'originalité.
La plupart des pièces proviennent d'Afrique centrale et datent de la fin du XIXe et du début du XXe siècle. Une centaine des plus belles armes de la collection est reproduite dans cet ouvrage. Il existe peu de publications consacrées à ce sujet. Elles sont pour la plupart ethnographiques et publiées principalement en allemand, en hollandais ou en anglais. Le lecteur découvrira dans ce livre d'art l'extrême beauté de ces lames à la surface vivante, travaillée longuement et où chaque geste du forgeron vise à inscrire les instincts vivaces, en rébellion contre le temps, qui bientôt quitteront ses propres mains de chair (George Steiner).

Cet ouvrage est publié à l'occasion de l'exposition Armes blanches d'Afrique noire du musée Barbier-Mueller présentée au musée du président Jacques Chirac à Sarran (département de la Corrèze) du 15 décembre 2003 au 30 septembre 2004.

La métallurgie du fer a été connue dès le 1er millénaire avant notre ère en Afrique, précédant l'âge du bronze, au contraire de ce qui s'est passé dans le Proche-Orient et en Europe. Les forgerons africains ont créé une variété incroyable d'épées, de couteaux, de haches ou d'herminettes, et d'armes de jet de formes particulières.
Certaines tribus, qui n'ont créé ni masques, ni statuettes, se sont spécialisées dans le forgeage de lames d'une beauté exceptionnelle, décorées d'incisions au caractère forcément symbolique. Ces armes furent parmi les premières curiosités que ramenèrent les pionniers, fondateurs des colonies belges et françaises d'Afrique.
Dans tous les ouvrages publiés sur les expositions coloniales de la fin du 19ème siècle, on peut voir les photographies de panoplies imitant celles de nos arsenaux européens : les lances s'y déploient comme les corolles d'énormes fleurs autour de boucliers et le pourtour est tapissé de couteaux de jets considérés jusqu'à une date récente comme des modestes ethnographica, des souvenirs de voyage dépourvus de qualités esthétiques. Depuis une vingtaine d'années, ces redoutables armes aux excroissances coupantes ont quitté les étalages des marchés aux puces, pour être anoblies. Plusieurs ouvrages et expositions ont permis aux connaisseurs de découvrir la beauté de leurs formes irrégulières et bien équilibrées, le raffinement du travail de martelage du fer et souvent la préciosité d'incrustations de cuivre ou de laiton qui transforment l'arme en un objet prestigieux, voire en une sorte de bijou masculin. Leur manche est consolidé par du fil de métal. Le tout émane une sensation de profond équilibre, d'harmonie, de beauté plastique achevée... Certaines de ces pièces, soclées et dressées dans l'espace, y occupent la place de véritables sculptures.
Il existe relativement peu d'ouvrages consacrés à ce sujet. Ils sont pour la plupart ethnographiques et publiés principalement en allemand, en hollandais ou en anglais.
Nous nous proposons de publier un livre où des planches à pleine page permettront au lecteur de percevoir l'extrême beauté de ces lames à la surface vivante, travaillée longuement et où chaque geste du forgeron vise à  inscrire les instincts vivaces, en rébellion contre le temps, qui bientôt quitteront ses propres mains de chair  (George Steiner).

La collection d'armes blanches africaines du musée Barbier-Mueller de Genève fait l'objet pour la première fois d'un ouvrage d'art superbement illustré et documenté et d'une exposition au musée du président Jacques Chirac à Sarran. L'ensemble d'armes de cette collection familiale prestigieuse a été réuni par deux générations de collectionneurs, dont il révèle l'inlassable recherche du Beau. Chaque arme fut choisie et acquise avec soin, comme une oeuvre d'art, pour des raisons esthétiques, équilibre des formes, force des décors, originalité. La plupart des pièces proviennent d'Afrique centrale et datent de la fin du XIXe et du début du XXe siècle. Une centaine des plus belles armes de la collection est reproduite dans cet ouvrage. Il existe peu de publications consacrées à ce sujet. Elles sont pour la plupart ethnographiques et publiées principalement en allemand, en hollandais ou en anglais. Le lecteur découvrira dans ce livre d'art l'extrême beauté de ces lames à la surface vivante, travaillée longuement et où chaque geste du forgeron vise à inscrire les instincts vivaces, en rébellion contre le temps, qui bientôt quitteront ses propres mains de chair (George Steiner). Cet ouvrage est publié à l'occasion de l'exposition Armes blanches d'Afrique noire du musée Barbier-Mueller présentée au musée du président Jacques Chirac à Sarran (département de la Corrèze) du 15 décembre 2003 au 30 septembre 2004.








 

http://www.beprimitive.com/Collections/Artifacts/African/african-artifacts/A020718-037 in 2017:

A020718-037
Blade Currency
Pende People
7.6'' W x 3'' D x 10.4'' H
$895







 

Lega people

http://www.fowler.ucla.edu/collections/lega-figures/ :
The Lega: A Brief History

The Lega peoples live on the southeastern edge of the central African rainforests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. From the mid to late 1800s, the Lega and adjacent peoples were raided for the Indian Ocean trade in slaves and ivory. In 1885, the Lega were brought into the Congo Free State, which became the Belgian Congo in 1908. Still, the Lega live in an isolated and mountainous region that has long resisted governmental control. Belgian administrators seeking to integrate the Lega into colonial society considered Bwami a “threat to tranquility and public order” because it represented forms of political organization outside colonial norms. Authorities outlawed Bwami in 1933 and again in 1948, causing radical change in Lega arts and ritual practices. Since Congolese independence in 1960, the Lega and other Congolese have suffered mightily from a tumultuous history of civil strife that continues today. Yet, as the brilliant objects of this exhibition suggest, profound wisdom and an acute sense of self and community characterize Lega life, and one can hope that such resourcefulness will carry the Lega through the trials they are currently experiencing.








 

http://www.randafricanart.com/index1.html :
Lega masks Lega masks are used as initiation objects in the Bwami society. Masks into five types according to material, size, and form: lukwakongo, kayam-ba, idimu, muminia, and lukungu (Biebuyck 1973,164). They serve as an important mark of rank, identifying the owners as members of specific Bwami levels (Biebuyck 1986,125-26).
Unlike many masks in other African cultures, the masks of the Lega are not usually worn over the face, they are attached to the body, held in the hand or simply hung on fences during the initiation ceremonies of the Bwami society.
Lit.: Cameron, Elisabeth L., Art of the Lega, Los Angeles 2001











 

Africadirect:
The Lega people live nearby the northern end of Lake Tanganyika on the banks of the Lualaba River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and are also known as the Warega. Living in small village groups they have no centralized authority but govern themselves through a communal association known as Bwami. This association is composed of male and female members who strive to achieve advancement in the various ranks of Bwami in which advancement is dependent upon the initiates passing through a number of ranks to achieve status and prestige and recognition as moral individuals. For the Lega the ultimate goal is to reach the uppermost level of Bwami where one would be recognized as a Kindi, one who exercises moral suasion and is a leader in society. The complex system of instruction, initiation and advancement in Bwami uses masks and figures to document the various levels of Bwami and to serve as badges validating the initiate’s knowledge of the secrets of Bwami and of their rank. Initiates earn the privilege to wear and display masks that might be worn on their arms or faces or simply exposed on racks or on the ground to other Bwami society members indicating their rank. Lega masks are usually carved in a distinctive style, with a heart-shaped concave face with a slightly protruding forehead, a narrow nose, slit eyes and a slightly open mouth. The faces of the masks are rubbed with white clay (pembe) each time that they are used and thereby acquire the white pagination that color the face.
Lega masks, known as Lukwakongo, are relatively standardized in form; however masks of particular importance with ritual and symbolic distinction will have unique forms.
The social and political life of the Lega (also known as the Warega) is regulated by the Bwami society, to which both men and women belong. There are seven levels for men, four levels for women.
see ART OF AFRICA by Kerchache et al. 'Lega Culture, Art, Initiation, and Moral Philosophy among a Central African People'. 1973, by Biebuyck, D.; Art of the Lega, by Cameron, E.









 

The Lega / Balega live in Democratic republic Cono, DRC, formerly Zaire.
The wooden masks from the Lega can be categorised as small, the so-called lukwakongo=lukwacongo masks,
or big, the so-called idumu and muminia masks.
Most are partly covered with white kaolin and carry a fiber beard.
They were used in instruction and initiation ceremonies.
The Lega and their art are described in several books:

Cameron, Elisabeth L.
Art of the Lega
Los Angeles
2001

A book published in Dutch, French and English:
Biebuyck, Daniel P.
Lega: Ethiek en schoonheid in het hart van Afrika
KBC Bank & Verzekering; Snoeck-Ducaju & Zoon
2002
239 pp.









 

http://www.beprimitive.com/stories-descriptions/lega-bwami-society-mask  in 2017:
There are approximately 150,000 Lega people who live in autonomous villages in the forests of the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Their principal industries are fishing, farming & hunting. For the Lega, every work of art is associated with proverbs that, when part of a ritual combination of poetry, dance, art, and song, impart wisdom to the members of the society. Lega sculpture conveys the ethical, social, and political values of Lega culture.
Both men and women in Lega culture enter the centuries-old Bwami society to learn skills and wisdom for life that are taught to initiates through art. Comprising five levels for men and three for women, Bwami is a voluntary association open to all Lega and its influence is meant to encompass the breadth of a person’s life. As the Lega say, “It is something that sticks and leaves a trace.” Most men and women enter the beginning levels of Bwami, but few reach the highest rank, known as Kindi. Character, kinship support, and participation in initiations dictate one’s advancement in Bwami. This lifelong educational process requires years of study with respected teachers and the successful completion of a series of initiatory rites that combine music, dance, gesture, proverbs, and the visual arts. As the initiate interprets a precise combination of these elements, their knowledge of Bwami truths is revealed and their achievements honored.

Most Lega masks are heart shaped with concave faces that feature a delicate mouth and eyes shaped like cowrie shells. White pigments are applied to the masks. Surprisingly, the masks are rarely worn on the face, but are attached to different parts of the body, hung on fences, held in the hand, or worn over the forehead with the beard draping over the face. The masks are most frequently used during initiation ceremonies.









 


So-called masks used by the Lega.
photo by Biebuyck








 

Small mask


Low-density wood.

On a wooden stand.

Probably a Lukwakongo mask, used in the Lega Bwami society.

Bought from a collection in Liege, Belgium.

Available: 400 Euro.








 

Small mask made of wood, with kaolin


High quality.
Classical object.

On an old black metal stand.

Probably a Lukwakongo mask as used in the Lega Bwami society.

Bought in 2017 in a live auction in Antwerpen, Belgium, from an old collection in Oostende / Ostend, Vlaanderen / Flanders, Belgium.

Available: 500 Euro.









 

Similar masks:


African and Oceanic Art Session I: Various Owners Session II: Andreas and Kathrin Lindner collection; Greub Collection
08 June 2007 | 2:30 PM CEST
Paris
Beau masque, Léga, République Démocratique du Congo
A FINE LEGA MASK, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO
lukwakondo, la face légèrement concave délimitée par les arcades sourcilières dessinant une ligne arquée continue, les traits structurés par la puissante verticale du nez haut et droit. A la largeur de la face répondent les fentes étirées des yeux et de la bouche, lui conférant une expression lunaire accentuée par l'enduit blanc au kaolin, et le modelé charnu des paupières supérieures et de la lèvre inférieure. Nombreuses traces de prélèvements rituels sur les lèvres, les paupières et le pourtour. Il a conservé sa cordelette de suspension et la ficelle permettant de fixer la barbe en fibres végétales luzelu qui l'ornait à l'origine. Belle patine d'usage, nuancée, beige et brun rouge, rehaussée de kaolin.
haut. 15,2 cm = 6 in
Provenance
Pierre Dartevelle, Bruxelles, vers 1970
Collection Ezio Bassani, Varese
LOT SOLD 50,400 EUR (Hammer Price with Buyer's Premium)









 


Sale 3566 Art d'Afrique, d'Océanie et d'Amérique du Nord
10 December 2013, Paris
Lot 84
Masque Lega  / Lega mask
RÉPUBLIQUE DÉMOCRATIQUE DU CONGO
Price realised EUR 59,100 = USD 81,306
Christies auction









 


Lega mask.
Sold in the auction by Sothebys New York, 2017-05, for 13750$.










 

Mongo

Scoop (spoon / cuiller)

Black
wood, decorated with metal nails
Hard to find a piece of this quality..
cfr. Ginzberg collection and auction of objects from that collection at Sotheby's
Bought from a collection of African art in Brussels, Belgium
Custom-made heavy black iron stand

Available: 550 Euro








 

Ngombe people

Knife similar to the famous so-called execution knives, named ngulu

no photo
Old and used.
Iron, rusty, with wooden handle.

Without stand

Bought on auction

Available: 80 Euro








 

Salampasu / Basalampasu / Mpasu / Salampasou /Asalampasa / Asalampasu / Salampansu / Salampanso / Salampassu people from a small region in Kasai, on the border of Congo / DRC / formerly Zaire

Face mask


Wood,  covered with sheets of copper, and a nice dark patina, plus fibers.
This type of mask is often named "Mukinka".
Classical form.

On a black metal stand.

Bought on a live auction of African art in Antwerp, Belgium.

Available: 470+20 = 490 Euro.









 

Similar mask:


Dance Mask Salampasu, Democratic Republic of Congo, Early 20th C. PROVENANCE: Acquired by Evelyn Annenberg Jaffe Hall from Aaron Furman gallery, New York, 6/26/67, then by descent to present owner. Artistic expression and performance are utilized in many African societies as a way to impart cultural ideals to members of the community. Masks are often used to represent specific traits valued within a society. This Dance Mask from the Salampasu of the Dem. Rep. of Congo is one of three different types of masks used during initiation ceremonies for young men. The mask is made of wood, plated with metal, believed to be a powerful medium. A woven fiber hangs down from the chin of the mask, stylistically representing a beard. The mask's bared teeth and pronounced forehead suggests a feeling of ferocity and aggressiveness. The sunken eyes give off an intensity expected of hunters, warriors, and chiefs, roles which the young men being initiated are expected to become. Height: Mask is 12 in. high. With fiber beard attachment: 18 in. high. IN 9-1-13 / Price On Request
http://www.brucefrankprimitiveart.com/pages/archive/african/african-art-092013-1.html








 


Congo = DRC = formerly Zaire
& Central African Republic
& Cameroon/Camerun
& South Sudan/Soudan/Soedan

Banda / Ngbaka / Mabo / Mbanja / Bangui / Bwaka / Banza / Bandia people

Throwing knife = wurfmesser = jet = currency / money, named ondo

frontside
flat backside

Iron and remaining parts of fiber on the handle.
Typical, classical shape.

Bought from a collection of throwing knives in Austria in 2013.

Available: 290 Euro. RESERVED

See pp. 106-107 of the book
Elsen, Jan
De FER et de FIERTE - ARMES BLANCHES D'AFRIQUE NOIRE DU MUSEE BARBIER-MUELLER
Catalogue d'exposition du musée de Sarran en 2003
Editions: 5 continents
2003
274 pages
Format: 31 x 25 x 3 cm
ISBN-10: 8874390858
ISBN-13: 978-8874390854
Couverture cartonnée avec jaquette illustrée
avec de nombreuses reproductions en couleurs.
Texte en français.
Ouvrage de référence.









 

Banda including the Mbugbu people, or Zande=Azande people

Prestige throwing knife = wurfmesser = jet = kipinga & currency / money


Iron + copper.

Bought from a dealer in traditional African art in Brussels in 2013.

Later a black metal stand has been custom-made.

Available: 230 Euro, including the stand.

See pp. 108-109 of the book
Elsen, Jan
De FER et de FIERTE - ARMES BLANCHES D'AFRIQUE NOIRE DU MUSEE BARBIER-MUELLER
Catalogue d'exposition du musée de Sarran en 2003
Editions: 5 continents
2003
274 pages
Format: 31 x 25 x 3 cm
ISBN-10: 8874390858
ISBN-13: 978-8874390854
Couverture cartonnée avec jaquette illustrée
avec de nombreuses reproductions en couleurs.
Texte en français.
Ouvrage de référence.









Art Banda 4
Guerrier Banda portant un couteau
de jet dans la main droite.
Photo : Archives de Didier CARITE.

En raison de la venue tardive des armes à feu en Afrique, les armes blanches n'ont cessé depuis des millénaires de tenir leur rôle dans la vie quotidienne. La chasse, la guerre, les exécutions, la religion, la magie, comme symbole de pouvoir ou comme monnaie.
Pour les matériaux tout était sur place, les végétaux ont donné le bois des arcs, des flèches, des sagaies, des boucliers et des fourreaux. Les animaux ont fourni malgré eux l' ivoire, pour les poignées des armes, la corne, le cuir et les tendons, pour les cordes des arcs, les gaines, les boucliers et les carquois.
Pour les métaux, le fer qui d'après des fouilles à Kartoum aurait été travaillé il y à plus de 2000 ans.
...
Tout les ingrédients sont réunis. Certe! Mais il faut l'homme fondeur, celui qui coule le métal et le met en fusion et l'homme forgeron, celui qui forme le métal chauffé au rouge puis le martèle jusqu' au résultat final, parfois le forgeron fait les deux. Pour cela les forgerons étaient craints et respectés, eux qui avaient les liens directs avec la terre, le feu, l'air et l'eau. Les 4 éléments naturel source de vie.
Les armes d'Afrique sont pour moi d'une beauté insensée, aux formes parfois extravagantes, mais d'une finesse extraordinaire, comme les couteaux de jets aux multiples pointes, pour un impact et une efficacité maximum, quand on voit les haches Nsapo, réalisations spectaculaires de torsades entrecroisées et de petits visages humains sculptés, les couteaux de parade konda aux multiples pointes courbes, les lames de poignard gravées au burin de formes géométriques ou animales comme chez les Fang.
Sans compter les magnifiques incrustations de cuivre sur certaine lames ou haches.
C'est à la fin du 19 éme siècle que les plus belles armes ont été fabriquées et que les forgerons étaient à leurs apogées. Ensuite, hélas, l'introduction de matériaux et de techniques européennes ainsi que les armes à feu on peu à peu reléguées les armes aux parades, aux prestiges des chefs et des rois. Puis elles vont servir de monnaie d'échange ou de dote pour les mariages.
...
Peu à peu les couteaux de jet sont devenus des objets de prestige, voir des monnaies.
Le dos du couteau est en général plat alors que l'autre face est en relief avec des décors gravés sur l'axe médian des différente lames. Il en existe également sans décor.
Quand on voit un couteaux de jet on à aucun doute sur sa fonction première qui était de tuer la proie. Mais quelle finesse dans la beauté de ces armes à plusieurs lames acérées et multidirectionnelle. Le manche est toujours couvert de cuir, fibres végétales, peaux, tissus, métal en bandelette " cuivre ou laiton". Parfois en ivoire pour les couteaux de dignitaire, prestige oblige. Elles nous viennent souvent d'Afrique centrale, des régions de savane, il est évident que dans les bois et forêts ils n'en avaient pas besoin.
http://www.memoire-africaine.com/armes.html
 

 

http://www.culture.gouv.fr/public/mistral/joconde_fr:

http://www.culture.gouv.fr/Wave/image/joconde/eth/0005/m028992_e0159_p.jpg
Domaine Afrique noire ; ethnologie
Dénomination couteau de jet
Auteur/exécutant Banda (?, population)
Lieu de conservation Pithiviers ; musée d'Art et d'Histoire



http://www.culture.gouv.fr/Wave/image/joconde/eth/0005/m028992_e0169_p.jpg

Domaine Afrique noire ; ethnologie
Dénomination couteau de jet
Auteur/exécutant Banda (?, population)
Lieu de conservation Pithiviers ; musée d'Art et d'Histoire










 


  • Title: Werpmes
    Zande [volk]
  • Production place
    Democratische Republiek Congo [staat]
  • Object number
    AE.1958.0029
  • Department
    Etnografische collectie - Afrika
  • Object name
    mes (wapen)
  • Material
    ijzer, leer
  • Dimensions:
    lengte: 41.5 cm
    breedte: 21.3 cm







     

    Banda / Bugdu people

    Throwing knife with 3 sharp ends.
    Iron.

    No photos up to now.

    Available: 150 Euro.








     


    Congo = DRC, formerly Zaire
    & Central African Republic
    & Congo Brazzaville

    Ngombe / Doko / Iboko / Bangala / Ngala / Lobala /  Mondjembo / Nzombe / Nzombo / Mongo / Ngbaka / Bondjo / Ngata / Konda=Ekonda peoples

    Symmetrical, iron prestige knife


    Bought from an old collection in Belgium of ex-colonials in Congo.

    On a custom-made iron stand, painted black.

    Available: 200 + 30 Euro = 230 Euro.








     


    Ethiopia

    Specific origin unknown:

    Headrest / neckrest / pillow


    Heavy wood.
    Great patina.

    Available: 180 Euro.
    reserved








     

    Headrest / neckrest / pillow

     
    Heavy wood.
    Great patina.

    Available: 130 Euro.
    reserved








     

    Gurage / Gurague / Gourague people

    Headrest / neckrest / pillow on a cone

     
    High-density wood.
    Almost black.
    Smooth, silky patina, and therefore high quality and high price.
    In view of the silky surface, probably an old, well used piece.

    Bought from Lalibela Gallery, in Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia, 2015-03.

    Available: 530 Euro.

    The headrests from Ethiopia with a base in the form of 1 or 2 cones or skirts with engravings are mainly attributed to the Gurage / Gurague / Gourague (or Oromo) people in the center of Ethiopia.







     

    A similar headrest has been published as Gurage? in the book
    by William J. Dewey, with contributions by various authors: Toshiko M. McCallum (Author), Jerome Feldman (Author), Henrietta Cosentino (Author)
    Sleeping Beauties: The Jerome L. Joss Collection of African Headrests
    published by the Fowler Museum of Cultural History, University of California at Los Angeles
    1993
    214 pages
    Language English
    Product Dimensions: 27.9 x 21.6 x 1.9 cm
    A collection of African Headrests in colour + B&W, together with descriptive text.
    exhibition catalogue







     

    Similar headrests are classified as Gurague or Oromo in the catalogue:
    textes par Xavier Van de Stappen
    Musée Royal de l"Afrique Centrale Tervuren, Belgique/Belgium, Vol. 151
    AETHIOPIA, Objets d'Ethiopie: Catalogue de l'exposition "Aethiopia, Peuples d'Ethiopie" Mars-septembre 1996.
    1996
    142 pages
    30 x 21 cm
    ISBN 10: 9075894392
    ISBN 13: 9789075894394
    421 photos d'objets ethniques, avec description et provenance (ethnie, lieu de récolte) précises :  manuscrits, Icone-polyptyque, croix en argent, appuie-nuque, récipients divers, céramiques, sièges, boucliers, plateaux, trépieds, labrets,  paniers, bracelets et autres objets de décoration personnelle etc...
    Poids = 700 g








     

    A similar headrest has been published as representative for Gurage / Gurague Sebatbet Style 10
    in the book by Odilon Audouin,
    APPUIE-NUQUE DE LA CORNE DE L'AFRIQUE - Headrests from the Horn of Africa,
    Toguna, 2016  http://www.audouinheadrests.com/livre-corne-afrique








     

    A similar headrest in the national Museum of Scotland, GB:









     

    A similar headrest offered for sale by Toguna gallery in France, as Ancien appui-nuque Guragé Sebatbét:









     

    Oromo / Oromia people, from the Jimma region?

    Headrest / neckrest / pillow


    High-density wood.
    Great, black patina.

    Bought personally from Lalibela Gallery in Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia, in 2005-03.

    Available: 520 Euro.

    Headrests of this form are attributed in several publications to the Oromo people from the Jimma region.

    See for instance p. 76 in the book by
    Pierre Loos, Thomas Bayet et Sophie Caltaux
    La tête dans les étoiles: Appuie-nuques du monde
    Brussels : BRUNEAF 2012
    168 pp.
    exhibition catalog du 6 au 10 juin 2012 Les caves de la nonciature 7 Rue des Sablons - Place du Grand Sablon 1000 - Brussels Belgium















     

    Oromo / Oromia people from the region Karrayyu / Karayyu / Karraya / Karayu / Karaju / Kereyu / Keruyu?

    Headrest / neckrest / pillow


    High-density wood, and reddish brown smooth, silky patina.
    These characteristics are typical for a Karrayyu headrest.

    Bought personally in a gallery / shop in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in 2015-03.

    Available: 240 Euro.

    This type of headrest is assigned in several publications printed and on the internet to the Karrayu people.

    This one is similar to the headrest that is shown as example of the class that is named Karrayyu Type 1 in the book by Odilon Audouin, APPUIE-NUQUE DE LA CORNE DE L'AFRIQUE - Headrests from the Horn of Africa, Toguna, 2016  http://www.audouinheadrests.com/livre-corne-afrique









     

    A similar headrest is offered for sale in 2017:
    http://www.beprimitive.com/Collections/Artifacts/African/african-artifacts/A0607-134

    Gurage People
    Ethiopia, East Africa
    Mid / Late 19th C. Carved
    Wood
    $395







     

    Silte / Selti / Silti people

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silt%27e_people
    The Silt'e people also Silte people (ስልጤ; simplified form: Silte) are an ethnic group in southern Ethiopia. They inhabit today's Silt'e Zone which is part of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region. Silt'e denote their origin to the city of Harar.[3] A considerable number of Silt'e live in Addis Ababa, Adama and other cities and smaller urban centres of southern Ethiopia where they make a living, e.g., as merchants or keepers of petty shops. In the countryside the Silt'e practise mixed farming and cultivate ensete. The term Silt'e is the modern ethnonym of the speakers of the Silt'e language.
     

    Headrest / neckrest / pillow

     
    High density wood.
    Almost black.
    Nice, shining, patina.
    Scarce type.

    Bought personally from Lalibela Gallery in Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia, 2015-03.

    Available: 540 Euro.









     


    http://www.audouinheadrests.com/archives
    Silt'e headrest








     

    Very similar to the headrest shown as Silte / Selti Type 1
    in the book by Odilon Audouin,
    APPUIE-NUQUE DE LA CORNE DE L'AFRIQUE - Headrests from the Horn of Africa,
    Toguna, 2016  http://www.audouinheadrests.com/livre-corne-afrique
    Also shown on the cover of the book:











    Similar headrest in the Calverton collection
    http://www.africanheadrests.com/silte.htm#
    are also attributed to Silte:









     


    Ghana in West Africa

    More specific origin not known

    Spoon / pounder / pestle / cuiller-pilon, so-called Kulango spoon


    Medium-density wood. Patina, not shiny.
    Probably well used and not cleaned drastically.

    Bought from a collection of traditional art from West Africa in Germany in 2010.

    Available: 120 Euro.

    These spoons are famous for their great anthropomorphic design.
    They are often called Kulango spoons, but their origin is not specifically the Kulango people; instead their origin is Ghana, as Amyas Naegele, expert and dealer in traditional art, told me when I visited him in his office in New York, USA.

    http://brunoclaessens.com :
    These spoons have always been one of my favourite household items from Africa. Their design surpasses the purely utilitarian character of many other examples. Presented on a pedestal, it is a wonderful form. In 1988, Jacques Kerchache, was the second to publish such a spoon in his magnus opus L’Art Africain (p. 377, n° 336). Among the hundreds of objects illustrated in this book only one is purely non-figurative: a single voluptuous spoon identified as Kulango. Gérard Berjonneau and Jean-Louis Sonnery had published it one year before in their book Rediscovered Masterpieces of African Art (1987, p. 270, no.273). In 2010, this particular spoon was sold by Sotheby’s for € 78.750,- (info, see above). A similar spoon, again identified as Kulango, fetched thirteen thousand euro in the famous Goldet auction of 2001 (lot 223). It was also published by Christiane Falgayrettes in the exhibition catalogue Cuillers-Sculptures (Paris: Editions Dapper, 1991: p. 68). Not suprisingly, these spoons have become very popular ever since and in recent years it became fairly easy to find examples in the trade (often at very fluctuating prices). More than a dozen got published, always identified as Kulango.
    BUT, they might not even be from Ivory Coast ! It was thanks to the NY dealer Amyas Naegele I just learned that these spoons might in fact be from the Ashanti. In a Facebook photo album (here, see one example below), he showed a group of essentially identical spoons, all labeled as Ashanti. He writes:
    Except for the small, slender example which pre-date them, they were all collected in central Ghanaian villages between 1990-2006 by friends. Each example is well used and varies subtly from the next in age, wear and form. They are used in the kitchen.
    Amyas Naegele informed me that Michelle Gilbert, an art history professor at Trinity College in Connecticut, has been doing field research in Akwapim, an Ashanti town, for decades. She bought several examples locally and insisted they were Ashanti. Additional, multiple trustworthy Ghanaian art dealers brought many of these spoons to the US and always described them as Ashanti !
    So, in all likelihood, Berjonneau, Sonnery, Paudrat or Kerchache were probably mislead and their misidentification has echoed ever since. As Amyas Naegele correctly states (personal communication, 08-10-13):
    It is possible that the Kulango also made such spoons but the form shows relatively little variation – certainly not the kind of variation one would expect over an area ranging from Akwapim to Kulango country. The falsehood about the origin of these spoons spread against a background where there was no information and no expertise and certainly no contradicting information. Unfortunately this kind of thing is extremely common in our field.







    Similar objects:
     


    Christie's auctions
    Price Realized ($5,299) Price includes buyer's premium
    Sale 2454 TRIBAL ART 24 May 2000 Amsterdam
    Lot Description A fine Kulango pestle/spoon The spoon with almost spherical bowl, the pounder of short flared form, curved handle between, dark glossy patina
    28cm. long
    Literature
    Schädler, K.-F., Gods Spirits and Ancestors, Munich, 1994, p.11
    Schädler, K.-F., Lexikon Afrikanische Kunst und Kultur, Munich, 1994, p.240
    Schädler, K.-F., Afrikanische Kunst, 1997, p.103 Exhibited Vienna, 1997, Earth and Ore. 2500 Years of African Art in Terracotta and Metal Lot Notes Cf. another almost identical, Kerchache, J., Paudrat, J.-L., and Stéphan, L., Art of Africa, 1989, p.377, fig.336 ENLARGE









     


    Sothebys auction
    Art Africain et Océanien, African and Oceanic Sale
    106
    très belle cuiller et pilon, Kulango, République de Côte d’Ivoire
    A VERY NICE KULANGO SPOON AND PESTEL, IVORY COAST
    Estimate: 1,400 — 2,300 EUR
    LOT SOLD. 1,440 EUR (Hammer Price with Buyer's Premium)
    05 December 2003 | 2:30 PM CET
    Paris
    Objet d’une belle ordonnance géométrique : jouant sur une lecture en trois dimensions, le manche oblique fait glisser le regard en profondeur jusqu’à l’intérieur du cuilleron. La base conique, sculptée en décroché par rapport à l’axe du manche, sert de pilon.
    haut. 29 cm









     


    Sotheby's auction
    African and Oceanic Arts, various owners
    2007
    36
    Cuiller-pilon, Kulango, Côte d'Ivoire
    A KULANGO SPOON, CÔTE D'IVOIRE
    Estimate
    2,000 — 3,000
    unsold







     


    The Marc and Denyse Ginzberg Collection, African Forms Sale: PF7027
    Location: Paris
    Auction Dates: Session 1: Mon, 10 Sep 07 5:00 PM
    LOT 152
    f - CUILLER-PILON, KULANGO, CÔTE D'IVOIRE [A KULANGO SPOON-PESTLE, IVORY COAST]
    Lot Sold. Hammer Price with Buyer's Premium: 4,560 EUR
    measurements haut. 29 cm
    alternate measurements 11 1/2 in
    Description
    Evoquant un personnage féminin stylisé, cette cuiller-pilon se distingue par sa belle ordonnance géométrique. Jouant sur une lecture à trois dimensions, le manche oblique fait glisser le regard en profondeur jusqu'à l'intérieur du cuilleron, tandis que la base conique est sculptée en décroché par rapport à l'axe du manche. Très belle patine brun rouge.









     


    Kulango Pounder Spoon, Hammer Price: € 78,750,
    Oceanic and African Art Auction,
    Sale PF1017, Sotheby’s, Paris, France
    2010









     


    Kulango Pounder Spoon
    H: 32 cm
    CHF 1200,00 / € 970,00 / $ 1.304,00
    Price includes stand.
    2011
    Galerie Walu / Jean David
    African Art - Afrikanische Kunst - Art d'Afrique
    Switzerland









     


    23/11/11
    Lombrail-Teucquam
    Paris
    France
    EMail : LT-1@wanadoo.fr
    Résultat : 1200 €
    Lot n°79
    CUILLÈRE-PILON KOULANGO évoquant une silhouette féminine. Incisions au niveau des seins. Trou de suspension à la partie supérieure. Patine d'usage brun clair.
    Haut.: 33,5 cm









     


    Vente aux enchères du Mercredi 12 décembre 2012
    Collection Liuba et Ernesto Wolf : Art Tribal
    Arts Premiers
    Artcurial - Briest-Poulain-F.Tajan - Paris (France)
    Lot 35 : CUILLER KULANGO, COTE D'IVOIRE
    Estimation : 1 500 / 2 500 €
    Le cuilleron de forme trapezoïdale est trés profond, le manche convexe décoré de rangées de petits diamants en relief
    Jolie patine d'usage
    19,50 cm (7,61 in.)








     


    Quittenbaum auction, Germany
    2012
    Löffel / Stößel
    103B 11
    Zuschlag: 2000 €
    Helles Holz. H. ca. 39 cm, Dm. ca. 9 cm. Laffe: 16 x 11 cm
    Vgl. J. Kerchache, J.-L. Paudrat, L. Stephan, Die Kunst des Schwarzen Afrika, Paris 1988, Abb. 336;
    vgl. Karl-Ferdinand Schaedler, Afrikanische Kunst, Von der Frühzeit bis heute, München 1997, S. 102, Abb. 55.
    Provenienz: Süddeutsche Privatsammlung.









     


    Bonham's auctions
    20 Nov 2012 13:00 EST
    New York
    African, Oceanic & Pre-Columbian Art
    20065 54 Kulango Spoon, Ivory Coast
    length 12 1/2in (30.5cm)
    Wood
    Provenance:
    Colette Ghysels, Brussels
    Marc & Denyse Ginzberg, New York
    Published: Ginzberg, Marc, African Forms, Skira Editore, Italy, 2000, p 100
    Sold for US$ 2,500 inc. premium









     


    Native auctions, Wolstraat 32 Rue aux Laines 32 Bruxelles 1000 Brussel, Belgium.
    A Kulango spoon
    Wood
    30,5 cm
    Representing a stylized female character.
    The geometric and sensual construction is composed of a large and round bowl, a trapezoid handle and a pestle figuring the hip of the abstract figure.
    Beautiful patina on every part for every use.
    Provenance: European Collection
    Litterature:
    Cuillers Sculptures, Musée Dapper, Paris, 1991, page 68.
    Afrique, l'art des formes, Marc Ginzberg, Seuil, 2000, page 100.
    Estimate: € 10 000 - 15 000
    2013
    unsold









     


    offered for sale by Pecci, dealer in traditional African art in Brussels, Belgium, 2013
    6000 Euro








     


    Lempertz Auction 1063, African and Oceanic Art, 26.01.2016, 14:00, Brussels
    A KULANGO SPOON
    Lot 134
    Result: €1.984
    With deep oval bowl and conical base, dark patina.
    28 cm. high
    Provenance: Martien Coppens, Eindhoven (1908-1986)









     


    Geometric Spoon
    Wood
    H: 11.5” (13.5" on base)
    Inventory # 10413
    for sale from African Plural Art, 1600$







     


    A restrained and elegant wood spoon from the Kulango people of the Ivory Coast.
    This S-shaped spoon shows nuanced carving with an indention in the middle segment that just echoes the small protrusion at the top of the bowl, with simple carved bands containing this detail, unfortunately barely visible in the photos.
    With a beautiful dark brown patina, it measures 7-1/4" in height.
    Ex private collection, Paris, since the 1950s.
    #9116
    $2600







     


    Ivory coast / Cote d' Ivoire / Elfenbeinküste / Costa D'Avorio

    Baule people

    Mask for the Goli dance performance; of the type Kplekple


    Wood and pigments.

    On a custom made, black, iron stand.

    Bought from an African art dealer in Germany.

    Available: 390 + 20 = 410 Euro.

    The goli kplekple mask is one of several that appear in the Goli spirit dance. It represents a minor spirit associated with the junior rank of male dancers who perform before the more important masks appear. In keeping with its low status, this mask is made in a simple disk-shaped design and lacks the more complex form and ornamentation that the Baule admire in their important masks. Considered a mischievous mask, the youthful dancer playfully chases young women around the village, goaded by their songs.

    http://artidellemaninere.com/:
    Among the Baule this wood painted mask is known as Goli Kplè-Kplè.
    Historically the mask was a late introduction to the Baule who acquired it from the neighboring Wan people sometime around 1900, (the first Kplè-Kplè known is the one included in Henri Labouret’s collection, cited in his article in 1914).
    Such a mask  appears during ceremonies celebrating the life and death of honoured elders or at other times will dance to simply entertain the village or celebrate the harvest.
    The Kplè-Kplè mask was one of a set of masks that appear during a ceremony ( Goli) and is identified with the spirit of the young men who dance the mask. As one of the first masks to appear during a dance ceremony Goli Kplè-Kplè sets the stage and engages the audience and prepares the way for  masks that will dance later, Goli Glen, Kplan Pre and Kpan.
    The four pairs of masks appear, two by two, in a fixed order. First a pair of Kplè-Kplè, next a pair of Goli Glen, third a pair of horned face masks Kplan Pre, and finally a pair of human faced masks Kpan.
    The pair is distinguished by colour; the male mask is painted red and the female mask is painted black (this designation is reversed in some villages).
    Baule masks are most often symbolically representative of animals in the Baule pantheon of mythical animals and beings. This Kplè-Kplè shows an abstracted buffalo head in a flat format with slightly protruding eyes and mouth and with the horns projecting upwards.
    It would be worn with a raffia (grass) costume attached to the lower section of the mask reaching to below the waist with a grass skirt and other grasses covering the body and legs.
    Photo by Eliot Elisofon
     











    https://new.liveauctioneers.com/item/53145279_goli-mask-kplekple-bla-ivory-coast: 2017
    Common features of Kplekple disc-shaped facemasks include antelope shaped horns, round eyes, a rectangular shaped mouth, and geometric designs. The red face is considered female and the dark/black face is considered male. The Goli masquerading tradition is performed during funerals and/or during times of danger. During the ritual, the mask wearer mediates with supernatural forces, which have a positive influence on the village people. The Goli mask appears in times of transition, like danger, illness, or at a funeral. The Goli helps to establish a connection with supernatural powers that can influence human life in a good or bad way. The Kpleple is one of several masks that appear in the Goli spirit dance. It stands out for its extreme minimalism and simplification of details as well as for the circular face. The horns represent the horns of an antelope.









     


    Ivory Coast = Cote d'Ivoire
    & Burkina Faso
    & Mali

    Senufo people

    Wooden, seated female figure




    Wooden statue of a woman with a narrow, flat face, a straight nose, protruding breasts, classical scarifications on the face and body, sitting on a circular stool, all typical for the Senufo.
    Stands on its own; does not need a stand.
    Cubistic carving.

    Stands on its own; does not need a stand.

    Bought in Paris, France, in the 1970s.

    Available: 290 Euro.








    Numerous statues of this type have been created by the Senufo and have been published.
    See for instance:












    Sotheby's
    African and Oceanic Art Session I: Various Owners Session II: Andreas and Kathrin Lindner collection; Greub Collection
    Paris
    08 Jun 2007, 02:30 PM | PF7006
    LOT 264
    sold for 72000 Euro
    According to Glaze (in Barbier, 1993: 24), "imposing statues were requested by the owners of the yasungo sanctuaries, as well as by the chiefs of the poro society. Some yasungo owners kept these spirit figures clean and oiled rather than covering them in sacrificial material, as was usually the case”. This powerful female figure can, in all likelihood, be interpreted as an ancestor figure, which was preserved for several generations in a yasungo sanctuary.
    The offered figure may be linked to Sandogo, a powerful female society. The responsibilities of the association are both social and religious – women assume the important role of ritual mediator between men and the supernatural world (Glaze, 1981: 46). The size and dominance of this sculpture suggests that she could represent the nërëjä ö, leader of every Senufo lineage, ideologically considered to be the "head" of the masculine poro society.









     











     


    A seated female Senufo sculpture of the Northern style from the Fourou village, approximately 7 km from Sikasso, the arms close to the body, the slender, elongated torso with protruding, tapering breasts, the head with a striated coiffure; encrusted patina, partly shiny.
    estimate 2.400 - 2.800,- Euro
    Height: 91 cm
    Tribalartforum, 2011








     


    Neumeister auctions
    Germany
    2012-11
    number 1011
    Senufo, Elfenbeinküste Sitzende weibliche Figur. Holz, mit durchbrochen beschnitzten Armen, rechte Hand fehlt, auf einem Hocker sitzend. Braune Patina mit deutlichen Gebrauchsspuren.
    H 21 cm
    A sitting, feminine figure, wooden, with carved arms, right hand is missing, seated on a stool. Brown patina and traces of use.
    h 21 cm
    Zuschlag: 1.700 €












    Was offered for sale on Ebay in 2013 for 1950 gbp.










    Very similar statue; was offered for sale on Ebay in 2013 for 15000 Euro.








    Sotheby's
    Arts d'Afrique et d'Océanie
    Paris
    11 Dec 2013, 04:00 PM
    PF1318
    Lot 35
    estimate 70000-100000 Euro, unsold









     


    Ivory Coast = Cote d'Ivoire
    & Liberia

    Dan people

    http://www.randafricanart.com/Dan_Gunyega_mask1.html :
    Masks are the most important art form of the Dan. Many of the other forms of sculpture are derived from the mask and what the mask symbolizes. Numerically, more masks are created than any other form of sculpture. Spiritually, masks are perceived to embody the most powerful of spirit forces. Socially, masks are the means of bringing control and order to village life. Masks provide the strongest impressions of a young Dan person's earliest experience, as their importance is reinforced by their presence at all significant events.
    Masks are empowered by the strongest of supernatural spirit forces, called gle. Like dii, gle inhabit the dark forest, particularly where the trees grow high and dense. Gle long to enter into and participate in the ordered world of the village but, being invisible, cannot until a visible form for each is made. The nature of that form, a mask and complete masquerade ensemble meant to represent the personality of the gle, is seen in a dream. In addition, the gle must reveal its intended function in the dream or that dream is considered useless. The dreamer, who must be an initiated member of the men's society, reports the dream to the council of elders. They then decide whether the masquerade ensemble should be created for that man to wear and perform. The carver carves the wooden face, and this is accompanied by attire that includes forest materials such as raffia, feathers, and fur. It is believed that each gle has its own personality, character, dance, speech patterns, likes, and dislikes, and it is given a personal name. The wearer of the mask takes on all these characteristics and qualities when he wears the mask ensemble. Having come from the unknown realm of the dark forest, a gle is thought to be unpredictable. Therefore it always has an attendant with it to control it as well as to interpret its speech.

    The 350,000 Dan live mostly in the western part of the Côte d’Ivoire and into Liberia, where the land is forested in the south and bordered by a savannah in the north. They make their living from farming cocoa, coffee, rice and manioc. They also live off game and fish. The Dan have the reputation of being fierce warriors, always battling their neighbors, the We, the Guro, and the Mano. From a cultural viewpoint the Dan are close to the We populations situated in forest regions of the south, and against whom they have waged innumerable wars. Lacking a central authority, the various groups had neither a political institution nor unity. The village is under authority of a chief and a council of elders. In addition, there were male associations that attempted to bring about a socio-political unity, reinforcing rules of behavior, demanding absolute loyalty and obedience from members, and giving an initiatory education to the young. These societies called upon the tutelary spirits of the bush. The most powerful, even today, is the secret society of the leopard, the go, which, without having fully achieved its stabilizing and unifying goal, nevertheless grows from one year to the next. The leopard society acts as a major regulator of Dan life and initiates young men during their isolated periods of three to four months in the forest. In order to attain adult status, all the boys and girls of the same age-group undergo an initiation that includes, in addition to specific teaching, circumcision for the former and clitoridectomy for the latter. To underline the transitional aspect of this trial, it takes place in the world of the bush – the realm inhabited by spirits who, like the ancestors, can play a mediating role between humans and supreme being Zran.

    Dan people have achieved notoriety for their entertainment festivals, which were village ceremonies, but are today performed largely for important visitors. During these festivals, masked performers dance on stilts. The go master, the head of the like-named society possesses the masks and guards them in a sacred hut. All Dan masks are sacred; they do not represent spirits of the wilderness, they are these spirits. Dan masks are characterized by a concave face, a protruding mouth, high-domed forehead and are often covered in a rich brown patina. There are a variety of Dan face masks, each of which has a different function. They may be the intermediaries, who acts between the village and the forest initiation camp, may act against bush fires during the dry season, used in pre-war ceremonies, for peace-making ceremonies, for entertainment. Over time, many among them have lost their original function and have been recycled into contexts related to entertainment, emerging only for festivals or events organized for visitors. Nonetheless, the great masks live on, their even more rare appearances being reserved for times of tension, when it is important they may exercise their role of social control and their faculty to reduce conflict or settle legal wrangles. The Dan also carried small masks (less than 8”), which are sometimes called ‘passport’ masks. They were sewn onto a piece of cloth and kept in a leather pouch and possibly worn in the small of the back. They are miniature copies of a family mask and sometimes received libations. These masks also act as witnesses during initiation ceremonies and protect the owner when he is away from home. Dan masks are the real treasures of African art tradition, ranging in their expressive powers from gentle tenderness to fierce aggression.

    The Dan statues are not representation of ancestors or spirits. These figures, which were commissioned by powerful chiefs as three-dimensional portraits of their favorite spouses function as maternity figures with babies on their back. They are kept hidden inside houses and are only revealed during important occasions such as visits by foreign dignitaries.

    A woman who has distinguished herself through her hospitality and generosity will own a superb spoon of sculpted wood. This is a custom specific to the Dan. This woman’s role, in the heart of the village, is to receive and feed travelers, musicians participating in celebrations, and men who have come to help clear the fields. The spoon possesses the power to make one rich and famous and confers a sure authority over the other women. The spoons have several shapes: the most usual one has a handle fashioned after a human head, comparable to certain masks; others have handles that form pairs of legs.

    The carvers also produce chiefs' staffs and female figures that seem to be prestige items, as are small figures cast in brass.

     

    The Dan people live in the region of the border between the western Ivory Coast / Cote d'Ivoire / Elfenbeinküste and Liberia.

    The Dan create idealized representations of the human face.
    The mask is never meant to portray a specific individual.
    Therefore some Dan masks are very refined and also admired by many non-African people.
    Some Dan masks remain in one family for generations.

    The Dan consider mask-making an important art form and an integral part of their life.
    Masking ceremonies have three different functions:

    The dancer transforms into the spirit he represents and enables communication between the spirit world and the material world to take place.

    Masks made by the Dan are generally divided into two categories, feminine and masculine.
    Feminine masks have slit eyes and painted faces (Gle Mu, Deangle); during ceremonies, the mask dancer act gracefully and harmlessly.
    Masculine masks have large round eyes and often a beard (Gle Gon).

    Typical for Dan masks are their

    Dan masks with circular eyes are presented on p. 95 of Roy Sieber and Roslyn Adele Walker
    African Art in the Cycle of Life. exh. cat.
    Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press
    1987 and reprinted afterwards
    ISBN 0874748216
    155 pp.

    The Dan and their art are described in a chapter of the book
    Jacques Kerchache, Jean-Louis Paudrat, Lucien Stephan,
    L'art et les grandes civilizations: L'art africain.
    Paris : Editions Mazenod, 1988, 620 pp.

    "The Dan people classify surroundings into two realms - the village with all inhabitants (human realm), and the forest (bon) (spirit realm) where the spirits reign, and wild animals roam freely. The forest is regarded as sacred, and crossing the boundary between the human realm, and the spirit realm, may only be done by saying a prayer and wearing materials from both worlds. This creates a link between the two realms.
    Dan masks are normally made of hard wood and cloth, with cowry shell decor. Masks is an integral part of social life, ceremonies and rituals.
    Masks are grouped into categories: the feminine mask, Gle Mu, and the masculine mask, Gle Gon. The feminine masks are characterized by an oval, pointed face, and feature slit-like eyes, a high forehead, slender nose, and a smooth patina. They are known for their calm, abstract beauty, and during ceremonies, the mask dancer act gracefully and harmlessly. The feminine mask's facial features includes a smooth patina, and strong aesthetic ideals of the Dan people.
    Masculine mask type, the Kagle, or "hooked stick", main function - was to prepare men spiritually for war. As of late, the mask is used to enable men to give vent to anger and frustration they might have.
    The Dan people believe a mask dancer is transformed into a spirit. The mask dancer goes into a trance during rituals and bring forth messages of wisdom from his forebears . The message is inaudible and in uncontrollable utters. A wise man that accompany the dancer during the ritual translates the messages.
    Masks are made and worn exclusively, by male dancers. Dan masks are only carved by initiated members of the male Poro society. Young boys enter training at a young age and remain at the training camp for several years, until they are initiated as adults into society.
    These initiated males are visited in their dreams by a spirit who wants to be given a bodily form. Following the dream, the adult male has to give life to the spirit, in the form of a mask.
    Before the actual carving process the adult male cleanse himself, then sets off to the forest. He selects an appropriate tree and say a pray to the spirit of the tree, before choosing a single piece of wood, big enough for his carving. When he reaches his village, he commence with the carving. On completion of the mask, he carefully plans the song, music and dance, that is to accompany the masking ceremony.
    The mask will remain in the family and community for years, and will eventually be passed down through the generations."
    (cited from the WWW site created by Rebirth African art and craft, Cape Town, South Africa)

    "The Dan live in Liberia and the Ivory Coast (Côte d’Ivoire). While they lacked a cohesive central government, identity as a Dan was fostered by a shared language and intermarriage within the language group. Today men make their living at wage work in the diamond camps or working at the rubber plantations instead of the more traditional farming and hunting. What has remained is the demonstration of success through the competition by young men to see who can spend more lavishly at community feasts. The Dan place a high value on the individual’s ability to succeed and consider such demonstrations of wealth as proof of achievements.
    The Dan’s worldview believes in a distinction between bush and village. This dualism of bush and village is pervasive in Africa, although the forms by which it is expressed vary from place to place. The underlying notion is that the world consists of two complementary spheres: one a wild, chaotic, uncontrolled, exuberant region (or nature); the other an ordered, controlled, measured, predictable domain (or culture), the human world of the village.
    The Poro society, which is found in some form throughout the western coast of Africa, is the most important mask-using group. In carving Poro masks the sculptor seeks to create a sense of rhythm by contrasting convex and concave surfaces, a contrast that can be emphasized by color variations and the differing textures of added elements -- bells, medicine bags, animal horns, etc.
    Only initiates of the Poro society are permitted to wear such masks. The masks function to bring to the initiates a sense of their second birth as members of the Poro society. Masks are present at public functions and life crisis ceremonies. The nyon néa wears a conical-shaped hat on top of her smooth oval face. The features of the néa are expressive of the ideals of beauty and serenity. The high, bulging forehead, prominent cheekbones and symmetrical mouth are all features seen in the young women of the area. A male counterpart, the nyon hiné, accompanies the female nyon néa. The nyon hiné has a black face that is half human and half animal and wears a cylindrical headdress adorned with cowrie shells. An interpreter and orchestra accompany the masks. Although deconsecrated today and viewed by all villagers, these masks still evoke the beginning and end of a cycle.
    The festival in which these masks are used takes place right after the rice harvest. The presence of the hiné and néa masks during the relative prosperity after the harvest symbolizes the success of the people in dealing with the negative effects of uncontrolled nature."
    (source = Utah Museum of Fine Arts, University of Utah, http://www.umfa.utah.edu/, 2005)
     

    For further reading: Fischer, Eberhard / Himmelheber, Hans (1976). Die Kunst der Dan. Zürich: Museum Rietberg.

     

    Face mask with circular / round eyes



    Wood + fibers to imitate of a beard + textile (probably raffia)
    Dark shiny brown.
    Typical, classical shape.

    On a stand in iron painted black, tailor made.

    Bought on a live auction of tribal arts in Antwerpen, Belgium.

    Available: 570 + 20 Euro.

    For a discussion on a similar mask in the Barbier-Muller Collection, see Hahner, Kecskesi and Vajda, page 32, "The Dan are farming people who inhabit the hinterland of western Ivory Coast and Liberia. They have a great number of masked figures who represent spirits of the bush, and fulfill a variety of social, political, and religious functions. According to Eberhard Fischer and Hans Himmelheber, eleven types of Dan masks can be distinguished by formal criteria. This does not imply, however, that the types can be associated with specific functions, because the meanings of masks change over time.
    Circular / round eye holes that permit unhindered vision on the part of the wearer are characteristic of the racer mask (gunye ge) and the fire mask (zakpei ge), two subordinate mask types used by the northern Dan. [...] As a rule, racer and fire masqueraders wear a scarf over their head which, in some cases, is decorated with leaves or a piece of sheepskin.
    For further discussion Mary H. Nooter, Secrecy: African Art that Conceals and Reveals, Munich, 1993, cat. 68, p. 149

    http://www.hamillgallery.com/DAN/DanMasks/DanMasks.html :
    There are regional variations among the masks of the Dan people who live in the western part of Ivory Coast and eastern Liberia but they are generally characterized by a concave face, a pointed chin, a protruding mouth, an upturned nose and a high-domed forehead.
    Now used principally in performance for tourists, the various masks had traditional functions ranging from entertainment to initiation to social control.
    We recommend an excellent chapter on the masks of the Dan people, including the various styles and their functions, in The Tribal Arts of Africa by Jean-Baptiste Bacquart.
    Dan masks are usually used by male associations for rituals, education, social control and entertainment. Masks were thought to embody the most powerful of spirit forces called gle. Each gle has its own character. They brought control and order to village life. There are several distinctly different types of Dan masks.
    Masks with round eyes that project outwards are usually Bugle masks, used at planting time to aid in the creation of good crops. They were considered masculine and more aggressive.
     

    http://www.shikra.de/?language=en :
    The Dan live in Ivory Coast and Liberia.
    They probably originally used their masks at feasts and circumcision rites.
    Typical for this type of masks are the feminine features - the pointed, oval shape of a face, the graceful nose and the small mouth.

    africadirect.com:
    The Dan in the past lived in small villages and towns ruling themselves through a complex arrangement of family lineages, men’s secret societies and various initiation ceremonies. Famous for their masks the Dan believe that spirits, known as Du, live in the untamed forests and manifest themselves to humans in masks and masquerades instructing and sustaining the Dan in life. When during a dream a male was instructed by a Du to dance a mask, he would commission a carver to make a mask for him. Among the Dan, masks are grouped in an assortment of forms with different duties assigned to each.
    Recommended Reading:
    Harley, G.W., Notes on the Poro in Liberia, Papers of the Peabody Museum, Archaeology & Ethnology, XIX, No.2 (Cambridge, MA, 1941)
    Harley, G.W. Masks as Agents of Social Control in Northeast Liberia, Papers of the Peabody Museum, Archaeology & Ethnology, xxxii, No.2 (Cambridge, MA, 1950)
    E. Fischer and Hans Himmelheber; The Arts of the Dan in West Africa, (Zurich, 1984)
    E. Fischer; “Dan Forest Spirits: Masks in Dan Villages”, African Arts, II, no. 2, 1978. pp. 16-23, 94.
     

    artpremiergallery in France:
    Dan masks are usually used by male associations for rituals, education, social control and entertainment. Masks were thought to embody the most powerful of spirit forces called gle. Each gle has its own character. They brought control and order to village life. There are several distinctly different types of Dan masks.
    Les Dan sont une sous-tribue appartenant aux Dan-Nguere. Ils habitent le Liberia orientale, la Guinée Conakry et la Côte d'Ivoire. La base sociale et spirituelle des Dan-Nguere est la société secrète Poro, qui veut dire en langue Temmé "sierra". Les masques Dan-Nguere se caractérisent autant par leurs variétés, comme par le fait qu'une même sorte de masque peut être utilisée en différentes zones pour différentes finalités. Les masques Dan féminins sont connus par l'importance qu'ils attribuent à la beauté du visage: la forme ovale, le front légèrement proéminent, les yeux déchirés, le nez fin et la bouche entrouverte. Ils rehaussent la finesse de ses lignes avec une brillante patine introduit dans le bois, en employant des substances végétales. Quand elles sèchent, elles prennent une couleur douce, qui avec l'usage ressemble à la laque. La fonction de ces masques est de régler les désaccords et de protéger les nouveaux nés. Les Dan font généralement des répliques de ces masques, qu'ils appellent "ma", pour les vénérer et comme protection contre les maladies. Ils restent cachés et servent comme preuve d'appartenance à la société Poro, se convertissant en objets presque sacrés, en les honorant avec des offrandes de riz et d'huile de palme, et de sacrifices en périodes de pleine lune. Le visage des masques Dan masculins est plus réaliste, et quelques fois avec des détails d'animaux. Il a la force vital, appelée "du", envoyée par Zlan le créateur aux hommes et aux animaux. Les "du" sont nombreux, et ils disent aux gens en rêve comment ils veulent être représentés. Quelques fois, ils veulent qu'un fétiche, ou qu'un arbre soit planté, mais ils peuvent demander aussi un masque pour résider. Alors, l'esprit se matérialise et se transforme en un "gle", et il peut intervenir directement dans la vie de la communauté. Chaque "gle" a sa fonction, et préside les differents événements sociaux. Ils sont aussi présents dans les moments de danger, ou de distraction. C'est pour ça qu'il y a une grande variété de masques Dan.

    This racer mask is worn by a runner who chases an unmasked, barefoot and bare-chested runner. The race ends more or less at its starting point, in the victory either of the pursuer - if he has been able to seize the adversary by the nape of the neck - or of the unmasked runner, who will then put on his own mask and costume and match himself against an unmasked runner from the first team. There may be a dozen contestants divided into two teams. The runner who carries off the most victories is acclaimed by the spectators. The winner of several victories may even be given a wife as a reward from the village chief. Chases of this sort would give elders the opportunity to judge the warrior qualities of the young men.
     

    http://www.randafricanart.com/Dan_Gunyega_mask1.html :
    Masks are the most important art form of the Dan. Many of the other forms of sculpture are derived from the mask and what the mask symbolizes. Numerically, more masks are created than any other form of sculpture. Spiritually, masks are perceived to embody the most powerful of spirit forces. Socially, masks are the means of bringing control and order to village life. Masks provide the strongest impressions of a young Dan person's earliest experience, as their importance is reinforced by their presence at all significant events.
    Masks are empowered by the strongest of supernatural spirit forces, called gle. Like dii, gle inhabit the dark forest, particularly where the trees grow high and dense. Gle long to enter into and participate in the ordered world of the village but, being invisible, cannot until a visible form for each is made. The nature of that form, a mask and complete masquerade ensemble meant to represent the personality of the gle, is seen in a dream. In addition, the gle must reveal its intended function in the dream or that dream is considered useless. The dreamer, who must be an initiated member of the men's society, reports the dream to the council of elders. They then decide whether the masquerade ensemble should be created for that man to wear and perform. The carver carves the wooden face, and this is accompanied by attire that includes forest materials such as raffia, feathers, and fur. It is believed that each gle has its own personality, character, dance, speech patterns, likes, and dislikes, and it is given a personal name. The wearer of the mask takes on all these characteristics and qualities when he wears the mask ensemble. Having come from the unknown realm of the dark forest, a gle is thought to be unpredictable. Therefore it always has an attendant with it to control it as well as to interpret its speech.

    The 350,000 Dan live mostly in the western part of the Côte d’Ivoire and into Liberia, where the land is forested in the south and bordered by a savannah in the north. They make their living from farming cocoa, coffee, rice and manioc. They also live off game and fish. The Dan have the reputation of being fierce warriors, always battling their neighbors, the We, the Guro, and the Mano. From a cultural viewpoint the Dan are close to the We populations situated in forest regions of the south, and against whom they have waged innumerable wars. Lacking a central authority, the various groups had neither a political institution nor unity. The village is under authority of a chief and a council of elders. In addition, there were male associations that attempted to bring about a socio-political unity, reinforcing rules of behavior, demanding absolute loyalty and obedience from members, and giving an initiatory education to the young. These societies called upon the tutelary spirits of the bush. The most powerful, even today, is the secret society of the leopard, the go, which, without having fully achieved its stabilizing and unifying goal, nevertheless grows from one year to the next. The leopard society acts as a major regulator of Dan life and initiates young men during their isolated periods of three to four months in the forest. In order to attain adult status, all the boys and girls of the same age-group undergo an initiation that includes, in addition to specific teaching, circumcision for the former and clitoridectomy for the latter. To underline the transitional aspect of this trial, it takes place in the world of the bush – the realm inhabited by spirits who, like the ancestors, can play a mediating role between humans and supreme being Zran.

    Dan people have achieved notoriety for their entertainment festivals, which were village ceremonies, but are today performed largely for important visitors. During these festivals, masked performers dance on stilts. The go master, the head of the like-named society possesses the masks and guards them in a sacred hut. All Dan masks are sacred; they do not represent spirits of the wilderness, they are these spirits. Dan masks are characterized by a concave face, a protruding mouth, high-domed forehead and are often covered in a rich brown patina. There are a variety of Dan face masks, each of which has a different function. They may be the intermediaries, who acts between the village and the forest initiation camp, may act against bush fires during the dry season, used in pre-war ceremonies, for peace-making ceremonies, for entertainment. Over time, many among them have lost their original function and have been recycled into contexts related to entertainment, emerging only for festivals or events organized for visitors. Nonetheless, the great masks live on, their even more rare appearances being reserved for times of tension, when it is important they may exercise their role of social control and their faculty to reduce conflict or settle legal wrangles. The Dan also carried small masks (less than 8”), which are sometimes called ‘passport’ masks. They were sewn onto a piece of cloth and kept in a leather pouch and possibly worn in the small of the back. They are miniature copies of a family mask and sometimes received libations. These masks also act as witnesses during initiation ceremonies and protect the owner when he is away from home. Dan masks are the real treasures of African art tradition, ranging in their expressive powers from gentle tenderness to fierce aggression.

    The Dan statues are not representation of ancestors or spirits. These figures, which were commissioned by powerful chiefs as three-dimensional portraits of their favorite spouses function as maternity figures with babies on their back. They are kept hidden inside houses and are only revealed during important occasions such as visits by foreign dignitaries.

    A woman who has distinguished herself through her hospitality and generosity will own a superb spoon of sculpted wood. This is a custom specific to the Dan. This woman’s role, in the heart of the village, is to receive and feed travelers, musicians participating in celebrations, and men who have come to help clear the fields. The spoon possesses the power to make one rich and famous and confers a sure authority over the other women. The spoons have several shapes: the most usual one has a handle fashioned after a human head, comparable to certain masks; others have handles that form pairs of legs.

    The carvers also produce chiefs' staffs and female figures that seem to be prestige items, as are small figures cast in brass.

     

    For further reading: Fischer, Eberhard / Himmelheber, Hans (1976). Die Kunst der Dan. Zürich: Museum Rietberg.








     


    Kenya

    Kande or Giriama / Giryama subtribe of the Mijikenda / Miji Kenda

    Memorial post = mortuary post = memory post


    With small face/head on top as published in
    AFRICAN ARTS MAGAZINE AUG 1980 Volume XIII, No 4
    MIJI KENDA GRAVE AND MEMORIAL SCULPTURES
    by Jean L Brown

    Vigango / Kigango

    for a similar post, see http://www.arts-primitifs.com/shop-africain/arts-premiers-africains/vigango/0901-poteau-vigango-4.htm

    Eroded heavy wood.

    On a heavy black, iron, custom made stand.

    Bought from an antiques shop in Antwerpen, Belgium.

    Available: 240+40=280 Euro.










     


    Mali, West-Africa

    Bamana / Bambara people

    Chiwara / Tiy Wara koun or Sogoni koun = Sogonikun horizontal headdress

       
    On a black, wooden stand.
    Typical, classical piece.

    Bought at a live auction of antiques and traditional African art in Antwerpen, Belgium.

    Available: 590 Euro








    Similar objects:


    The Collection of Frieda and Milton Rosenthal: African and Oceanic Art 25
    A fine Bamana antelope headdress, Mali
    LOT SOLD. 10,625 USD (Hammer Price with Buyer's Premium)
    14 November 2008 | 2:00 PM EST
    New York
    A fine Bamana antelope headdress, Mali n'gonzon koun, of horizontal form with a metal sheet around the neck and long curved horns; fine blackened, partially resinous patina.
    length 22 7/8 in. 58.2 cm
    Provenance Lawrence Sunde, Copenhagen Acquired from the above on November 18, 1963










     


    Bambara (or Bamana), Mali: a dance crest, known as ‘chiwara’, in the form of a female antelope.

    This horizontal type, from the region of the capital city Bamako, is also known as a ‘sogonikun’ dance crest. Among the Bambara (also called Bamana), workers of the land in the Mali savanna, two young men dance with such antelope crests, known as ‘chiwara’ on their heads and wearing floor-length, black costumes of fibres. The aim of the ritual is to increase and secure fertility of the fields. During the dance, the antelope dance crests are tied to plaited caps. The present ‘chiwara dance crest’ depicts a female antelope, shaped in the horizontal type of ‘sogonikun’, which is typical in the territory around the capital of Mali, Bamako. The antelope is carved in two pieces of hard, brown wood and dyed black. Head and body are connected at the neck through two iron staples. The long horns, which are slightly and elegantly curved upwards, bear deeply carved relief lines. On the lower end of the horns, behind the head, a small human figure was probably glued on as an addition. Remains of black tree resin are still recognisable there. The actual head section is decorated above, on both sides, each with two broad, horizontal zigzag lines, and on the remaining surfaces with double, fine incised lines in cross form. The pointed, long ears lie horizontally on both sides. They are pierced below, and decorated with knotted, red cotton tassels. Some tassels are missing (lost), as a result of protracted use of the object. The muzzle of the antelope is widely protruding, with open mouth and tongue. On the nose is preserved a continuous hole, where a metal ring or a red cotton tassel was once attached as decoration (as on the ears). The body of the female antelope displays on the front (human) breasts, a slightly curved, angular small tail, and is decorated on the exterior surfaces with fine lines and stamped circles. The entire object shows a good usage patina and slight colour scuffing on some edges, through protracted use. The base plate and the four holes, for attaching the ‘chiwara’ onto the plaited cap, bear noticeable traces of use. No significant damage. Height: c. 40 cm; length: 67 cm. First half of the 20th century. (ME)

    Provenance: German collection.

    Lit.: ‘Bamana’ by Jean-Paul Colleyn, ill. 44–50.

    Specialist: Prof. Erwin Melchardt
    Bambara (or Bamana), Mali: a dance crest, known as ‘chiwara’, in the form of a female antelope.

    realized price**
    EUR 1,625
    USD 1,850
    AUCTION DETAILS
    Tribal Art
    Afrika, Orient, Asien, Indonesien, Ozeanien
    Date: 06.04.2017, 14:00
    Location: Palais Dorotheum Vienna
    https://www.dorotheum.com/en/auctions/current-auctions/kataloge/list-lots-detail/auktion/12396-tribal-art/lotID/19/lot/2193415-bambara-or-bamana-mali-a-dance-crest-known-as-chiwara-in-the-form-of-a-female-antelope.html?results=sold







     

    http://www.beprimitive.com/Collections/Artifacts/African/african-artifacts/A1100-016 in 2017:

    A1100-016
    Tyewara or Antelope Headdress
    Based
    Bambara People
    Mali, West Africa
    20th C.
    Carved Wood
    29'' W x 3.5'' D x 15.25'' H
    $6,495








     


    Mali & Burkina Faso, West-Africa

    Dogon people

    Satimbe mask

         
    Available from pnieuwen@vub.ac.be: 470+20 = 490 Euro.

    Wood, fibers, pigments.

    On a custom-made, black, iron stand.

    From a live auction of a large collection of old African art in Antwerp(en), Belgium.

    Texts about Satimbe masks and photos of old pieces can be found for instance on pp. 138-143 in
    Bilot, Alain et al.
    Masques de Pays Dogon.
    Paris : Adam Biro, 2001, 191 pp.

    More scarce than the well-known Kanaga masks.









     

    Door lock from the Dogon or Bambara people/tribe in Mali


    Wood.
    Nice patina.
    On a heavy, black metal stand.

    Bought on an auction of tribal art by the high-quality auction house Bernaerts, in Antwerp, Belgium.

    Available: 240 Euro.

    Panel doors were used to protect houses and granaries.
    They are abstract or they show symbols that represent in many cases the ancestors.
    In the past, these doors were secured by carved wooden locks.
    Because of the availability of modern padlocks and the demand for old wooden locks and doors on the Western art market, these objects are becoming increasingly rare in the villages.
    Such door locks were transmitted from generation to generation.

    A few Dogon door locks have been shown on the WWW at
    http://www.artheos.org/ [cited 2003]
    There the mechanism of the locks is also explained.

    "Openings into the granary were sealed by carved doors or panels. Figures of humans, animals or of symbolic motifs were carved in relief onto the surface of the door, and sometimes into the locks. The doors had pointed corners that served as hinges and a sculpted wooden lock to keep it closed."

    A whole, very nice book with many photos is dedicated to Dogon door locks:
    Bilot, Alain et al.
    Serrures du Pays Dogon
    Paris, France : Adam Biro, 2003.










     

    http://www.beprimitive.com/Collections/Artifacts/African/african-artifacts/A0700-516 in 2017:

    A0700-516
    Door Lock
    Dogon People
    Africa
    20th C.
    Carved Wood
    14'' W x 1.5'' D x 16'' H
    $1,295







     

    http://www.beprimitive.com/Collections/Artifacts/African/african-artifacts/A0700-520 in 2017:

    A0700-520
    Door Lock
    Dogon People
    Africa
    20th C.
    Carved Wood
    12.5'' W x 1.5'' D x 12'' H
    $1,295






     


    North Africa

    Terracotta painted vessel


    Bought on an auction of antique art objects at the high-quality auction house Bernaerts in Antwerpen, Belgium.

    Available: 29 Euro.








     


    Tanzania or Mozambique

    Makonde (Wamakonde, Konde) people

    Helmet mask named Mapiko, Mipiko, Lipiko, Lipico

      

    Realistic, with many scarifications
    Very light wood, which is normal for this type of masks; metal teeth and real short hair.

    Bought from an antiques shop in Antwerpen, Belgium.

    A suitable plexi glass stand is available.

    Available: 790 Euro









     

    Zimbabwe & Zambia & South Africa

    Tonga / Batonga / Tsonga / Batsonga people

    Seat / stool


    Wood.
    Nice patina.

    Bought from a collector/dealer in The Netherlands, 2017-04.

    Available: 85 Euro.

    This type of seat is discussed by Boris Wastiau on p. 270 of the book:
    JOHANNOT, PURISSIMA BENITEZ & JEAN PAUL BARBIER-MUELLER (editors)  Contributions by Nigel Barley, Daniel Biebuyck, Aboubakar Njiasse Njoya, Mary Nooter Robbins, Boris Wastiau et al.
    Sieges d'Afrique Noire du musee Barbier-Mueller
    Catalogue d'exposition à Toulouse en 2003
    Editions 5 continents
    2003
    331 pages
    ISBN-13: 9788874390861
    ISBN: 8874390866
    Text in French.
    avec de nombreuses reproductions en couleurs
    31 x 25 x 3 cm
    hardcover
    Couverture illustrée
    Texte en français
    110 color photographs (most full page) and approximately 185 black & white photographs and line drawings. Catalogue of an exhibition in Toulouse. Contributions by Nigel Barley, Daniel Biebuyck, Aboubakar Njiasse Njoya, Mary Nooter Robbins, Boris Wastiau et al.

    Ouvrage de référence

    À propos des sièges d'Afrique noire. Plus que tout autre mobilier, les sièges d'Afrique noire adoptent des formes d'une inventivité et d'une beauté stupéfiantes. Formes de base pour soutenir le corps, ce sont les objets les plus présents dans la plupart des cultures. Les surfaces lisses et généralement concaves des sièges africains invitent non seulement au repos mais présentent des ornementations des plus sophistiquées. L'habileté technique et l'imagination des artisans traditionnels contribuent à augmenter le prestige du propriétaire du siège et les plus élaborés peuvent aussi servir à promouvoir une position politique. À l'instar des proverbes omniprésents dans la vie africaine, les tabourets, les bancs, les chaises et les trônes marquent les changements importants survenant dans la vie des dirigeants africains mais aussi des gens du peuple. Du berceau à la tombe, et même au-delà, la beauté et l'utilité des sièges, tant au niveau de leur forme que de leur signification, dominent aujourd'hui encore les rites et la vie domestique. Le musée Barbier-Mueller possède une collection de plus de deux cents sièges africains, parmi lesquels nous avons sélectionné des objets étonnants, riches dans leur substance et dans leurs détails. Ceux qui ont collaboré à la rédaction de cet ouvrage les ont étudiés d'un oeil critique. La première partie de ce catalogue se compose d'essais qui offrent tout un éventail de perspectives. Dans son avant-propos, Jean Paul Barbier-Mueller invite le visiteur à regarder ces objets et surtout leur forme parfaite, leur équilibre et la mesure dont ils font preuve, en s'appuyant sur une oeuvre d'art moderne inspirée par les motifs africains traditionnels, qui elle aussi, répond à ces préoccupations. Nigel Barley étudie comment l'imagination et la créativité des artistes africains transforment et adaptent les formes occidentales des pièces de mobilier. Purissima Benitez Johannot nous raconte l'histoire d'un tabouret, le Siège d'Or, et analyse son rôle significatif dans la construction d'une identité nationale. Aboubakar Njiassé Njoya souligne l'intérêt sous-jacent aux tribulations d'un tabouret de voyage d'un roi. Daniel P. Biebuyck étudie les transformations sociales qui se mettent en place quand les formes et les fonctions d'un tabouret changent. Mary Nooter Roberts redéfinit notre vision des sièges et, au travers de ces objets, la culture au sein de laquelle ils ont été fabriqués, en prenant appui sur des concepts modernes de théorie sociale. Boris Wastiau nous montre que pour comprendre un peuple il faudrait aussi comprendre qui s'assoit, où et comment. La seconde partie du catalogue présente une notice descriptive pour chaque siège de la collection.

    Les sièges qui adoptent des formes extraordinairement variées n'ont pas qu'une simple fonction d'objet utilitaire et affirment souvent le prestige ou le pouvoir de celui qui les détient.

    Ils rendent compte des multiples variantes de styles, souvent ignorés, de différentes ethnies et sont une éclatante démonstration du talent et de la richesse inventive des artistes africains.

    Par leur puissance plastique, leur grande qualité formelle et leur pouvoir d'expression, ces objets, véritables oeuvres d'art à part entière, sucitent en nous une profonde émotion et sont désormais admirés à l'égal ds chefs-d'oeuvres des civilisations historiques. Ils s'imposent comme l'expression plastique des codes esthétiques qui jaillissent des différentes cultures dont ils sont issus.










     


    I am NOT a professional dealer who wants to earn money by selling objects.

    This document has been updated most recently 2017-06


    Feel free to contact me for additional information and appraisals: pnieuwen@vub.ac.be


    See also:


    The pages of this WWW site have received a link from the following other WWW sites and pages:

     


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    Afrika, Afrikaans, Afrikaanse, antropologie, antropologisch, beeld, beelden, beeldhouwkunst, beeldhouwwerk, beeldhouwwerken, boek, boeken, caoline, clan, clans, Congo, Congolees, etnisch, etnische, ethnisch, etnische, etnografie, etnografisch, etnografische, ethnografie, ethnografisch, ethnografische, hoed, hoeden, hout, houten, houtsnijwerk, kleur, kleuren, Kongo, kunst, kunsten, kunstenaar, kunstenaars, masker, maskers, neger, negers, negerkunst, pigment, pigmenten, pluim, pluimen, pop, poppen, primitief, primitieve, raffia, rafia, sculptuur, sculpturen, speelgoed, stam, stammen, tekstiel, textiel, totem, totems, tribaal, veer, veiling, veilingen, veren, verf, geverfd, vezels, vruchtbaarheid, zaire

    Africaines, Afrique, art premier, arts premiers, congolais, congolaise, fecondite, fetiche, fibres, geometrie, grenier, livre, livre, metiers, masque, masques, negre, negres, patine, poupee, poupees, robe, style brut, teintures, tribale,

    Afrikanisch, Afrikanische kunst, Holzplastik, Schwarzafrika

    bambola della fertilità, caolino, conchiglie, femminile, legno, maschera, metallo, patina, pelo, pigmenti, perline, fibre vegetali, piume, statua


    This page can be found online at http://www.vub.ac.be/BIBLIO/nieuwenhuysen/african-art/
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